Eighty-eight percent of UK aviation organisations have detected cyber attacks on their Operational Technology (OT) or Industrial Control Systems (ICS) in the last 12 months, with 95% of these encountering at least one successful attack, according to new research from independent cyber security services company, Bridewell Consulting.
Image courtesy Bridewell Consulting
These findings come despite over three-quarters (78%) of organisations saying they are confident that their OT systems are protected from cyber threats, highlighting a degree of misplaced confidence in CNI cyber security in the sector.
The research, which surveyed 250 UK IT decision makers in the aviation, chemical, energy, transport, and water sectors, found aviation to be one of the most confident sectors when it comes to cyber security, despite detecting the highest volume of attacks.
Aviation organisations are facing increasing risks posed by ageing legacy infrastructure that is becoming increasingly connected. The majority (88%) rely on OT systems that are between 6-20 years old, with over half (52%) between 11-20 years old. Systems are also increasingly accessible with 88% confirming that OT / ICS environments are accessible from corporate networks. Whilst over half (52%) say systems are currently not accessible from the Internet, of those, 54% plan to make them accessible in the future, potentially widening the attack surface and introducing new threats.
The research also reveals aviation organisations believe third party suppliers and partners pose the lowest risk. This is despite the National Cyber Security Centre (NCSC) and revisions to the NIS Directive (NIS 2) identifying the supply chain as a significant area of risk for CNI organisations, indicating a possible educational challenge over certain cyber threat vectors in the sector.
“The report highlights some nuances between how some organisations in the aviation sector perceive their cyber security posture versus reality” said Scott Nicholson, Co-CEO at Bridewell.
“Security vulnerabilities, whilst challenging to remediate within some CNI organisations, could have serious implications, not just in terms of substantial monetary fines but also risks to public safety and even loss of life, so organisations simply cannot afford to be complacent.”
Covid-19 has also intensified cyber threats with nearly half (45%) of UK aviation organisations experiencing increased attacks since the pandemic began. Yet over a quarter (28%) have reduced cyber security budgets in response. This is putting increasing pressure on IT and security teams with 82% agreeing they have felt an increasing pressure to improve cyber security controls for the OT / ICS environment in the last 12 months.
Encouragingly, 98% of organisations are carrying out some form of security assurance activities. However, less than half (44%) carry out penetration testing and only 37% conduct red, blue or purple team exercises, vital activities that can identify vulnerabilities and reduce the likelihood of attacks.
This could be due to mounting pressures, with understanding regulation cited as the top challenge facing teams today (cited by 34% of respondents), followed by a lack of knowledge/skills (32%). While 86% believe they currently have the right skills in place to maintain and secure their OT environment, worryingly 84% agree the UK’s CNI industry will be impacted by a critical cyber security skills shortage in the next three to five years.
“Aviation remains one of the most targeted sectors and while legislation like the NIS Directive and regulations has certainly helped to improve cyber security in the sector, there’s still room for improvement. Proactive cyber security activities such as vulnerability management, penetration testing, patching and threat assessments should be standard practice across the industry. This can be a challenge when balanced against the operational demands of the business, but the bad guys don’t care, so steps need to be taken to improve security before it’s too late,” concluded Nicholson.